However, it has become increasingly clear that when intrinsic qualities like attitude, tone and use-value are addressed, the result is a far more comprehensive view of the changes that the villanesca experienced during the initial phrase of its development —57 , when Neapolitan songwriters reproduced or varied the generic expectations of their audiences. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
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Italy, 16th century 1. The madrigal in society. The madrigal at mid-century: Rore. The s: hybrid styles. The s: the ornamented style; dissemination of the hybrid madrigal. Expressionistic and recitational styles. Poetry and the madrigal. The madrigal in society, — The polyphonic madrigal after The concerted madrigal 1.
Madrigals for two and more voices. Solo madrigals. Bibliography IV.
The English madrigal 1. The s: Morley, Weelkes and Wilbye. After Later history. Bibliography V. Charles B. Amsterdam, Elizabeth L. Cambridge, , This page intentionally left blank One printers and publishers The Merchants of Venice Venice may be called a summary of the universe, because there is nothing originating in any far-off country but it is found in abundance in this city.
The Arabs say that if the world were a ring, then Ormuz, by reason of the immeasurable wealth that is brought thither from every quarter, would be the jewel in it. The same can be said of Venice, but with much greater truth, for she not only equals Ormuz in the variety of all merchandise and the plenty of all goods, but surpasses her in the splendor of her building, in the extent of her empire, and, indeed in everything else that derives from the industry and providence of men.
Venice was indeed the marketplace of the world. Its location on the lagoons and its unique connection with the sea distinguished it among the great commercial centers of the Renaissance.
A maritime power and trading emporium, it survived for a thousand years as an independent city-state protected from internal strife and foreign invasion. It gained its power and prosperity not from the quantity of lands owned by its patriciate, but from the mercantile activities of its residents. It is in this larger context that we must begin our study, for commerce and trade played a central role in the development and achievements of music printing.
They sold spices, salt, cotton, grains—items they had imported from the East for centuries. They also traded in commodities they manufactured themselves: woolen cloth, glassware, soap, and silks. It boasted the best and most advanced distribution system in the world. Others quickly came to Venice to seek their fortune in the new industry, and by there were at least a dozen printers active in the city. Printing became a boom industry, in which many competed but few survived.
Between them they produced some sixty-four editions during the period —72—about half of the total for all Venetian presses. These new arrivals succeeded the Germans and French who had dominated Venetian printing during its formative years. Several of them prospered and, in turn, established their own dynastic presses, some of which lasted for over a century. Among these printers, the houses of Giunti, Giolito, and Manuzio became the preeminent publishers of Cinquecento Venice.
During its year history, the House of Scotto printed more than 1, editions, while the Gardano press, which endured for seventy-three years, produced some 1, titles. Scholars of print culture have been at a loss for what to call the dynastic bookmen, in view of the wide repertoire of roles they played in the printing industry. Eisenstein designated them master printers; Lowry simply labeled them publishers. Contemporaries did have a name for these early capitalists; they called them mercatori or merchants. The Venetian mercatori dealt with all facets of their trade. They directed a complex mechanized operation that employed a highly skilled workforce and used expensive equipment and materials.
They oversaw every aspect of the production of their books, from the acquisition of manuscripts to the setting of type, running of presses, and proofreading of copy. They solicited other printers, publishers, and entrepreneurs to form syndicates or invest in their publications and, in turn, they underwrote the publication of books produced by other bookmen. They cultivated potential authors and clients, who might commission books.
Above all, these dynastic printers supervised a complex distribution network that extended throughout Europe. They retained book carriers, who hawked their publications from town to town, formed alliances with foreign presses to sell their books, and employed book agents to look after their interests abroad. Figures compiled by modern bibliographers show that printing and publishing reached its zenith in La Serenissima during the period from to —an era of unbroken peace which came to an end with the disastrous plague.
Scholars have conservatively estimated that in the sixteenth century, Venetian presses published around 7, to 17, editions.
She cited twenty-nine editions by Antonio Gardano, while Lewis noted The pressrun for an ordinary edition was about 1, copies. Most of the bookstores and presses were located in the sestieri of Castello, Cannaregio, and San Marco. Situated above the Grand Canal, these three districts were, in the sixteenth century as today, the commercial areas of the city, while Santa Croce, San Polo, and Dorsoduro, located below the Grand Canal, were more residential in nature. The bookstores and presses stretched from the Rialto district as far east as the parish of Santi Giovanni e Paolo to the precinct of San Zacharia, to the north of the Piazza San Marco.
By the time his nephew Ottaviano took over the business, the press was situated in the parish of San Felice 2 in Cannaregio. Distinctions among the occupations were often blurred, with the majority of bookmen carrying out two or more aspects of the trade. Mercatori such as the Scotti or Giunti took on all three professional roles at the same time.
Whatever their stature, Venetian bookmen maintained strong alliances with one another. After George Braun, Civitas orbis terrarum Photo courtesy of The Edward E. Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library. Familial and personal relationships often formed the basis for commercial activities. Venice, as a great mercantile center, emphasized these connections. Brothers or cousins would form a fraterna or family partnership, collectively operating their own business and often living together in the same house.
click It was not uncommon even for distant relatives to work for the press. As in other industries, advantageous marriages within the book trade were used to strengthen the large presses. When Johannes de Colonia died, Paola married her fourth husband, another printer named Reynaldus de Novimagio, who promptly joined the company created by Johannes de Spira and strengthened by Johannes de Colonia.
Bookmen took out privileges from the Venetian Senate to protect their work from pirated editions. They could seek redress in court for infringement of their privileges or other business disputes but did so infrequently, choosing instead to govern themselves in an informal manner.